Thursday, December 17, 2015

They Would Be Gods - 18 - Ancient Sumer



by Anthony Forwood (2011) 

18: Ancient Sumer

Aside from the biblical city of Jericho, which existed as far back as 8,000 BC, Sumer is the oldest civilization we know to have existed, believed to have arisen no later than 5,000 BC, followed later by the Akkadian, Assyrian, and then the Babylonian civilizations. The Sumerian civilization seems to have arisen out of nowhere, and nobody knows who these people were or where they came from, nor how their civilization was able to develop so quickly, and why it degenerated again. They had an advanced writing system, were expert mathematicians and astronomers, and had organized systems of agriculture, commerce, law, etc.

The ancient Sumerian civilization consisted of a number of cities that were located on the narrow strip of land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in modern-day Iraq, several hundred miles south of Baghdad. Although nothing remains of these cities today, a great deal of what the Sumerians wrote has survived to our own time, preserved on thousands upon thousands of clay tablets that have only been discovered in the last hundred years or so. The highly acclaimed author and qualified expert on ancient languages, Zecharia Sitchin, has been involved in deciphering and translating these texts, and has published a series of seven books on his findings, referred to collectively as the Earth Chronicles. The entirety of this section is based on his remarkable presentation of these ancient texts, and I highly recommend his books to my own readers. What he presents is very significant, and the information he offers is quite detailed, but so much of it is relevant to the overall topic of this book and cannot be omitted, so this section is quite lengthy, even though it only covers information in the first book of his series, entitled The 12th Planet.

Many of the Sumerian texts center around certain legends that describe a great race of technologically advanced beings who, according to these tablets, came to Earth and genetically created the human species, ruling over our earliest ancestors until their warring nature resulted in a devastating end to their Earthly dominion, at which point they departed from the scene.

In these ancient texts, the wars between the gods, and the effect of these wars, bear a very similar resemblance to what is described in the ancient texts of India, which are discussed in the next section. In fact, as we’ll see, there is a parallel between the gods of Sumer and those of many later civilizations of that same region. The names of people and places are different from culture to culture, but many of the accounts are more or less identical. As evidence of these gods and their terrible weapons – possibly of a nuclear variety – there can be found sheets of fused green glass in the Libyan desert that is identical to vitrified sand resulting from modern-day atomic blasts. Such nitrification requires temperatures in the range of 6000 degrees Celsius.

The early gods of Sumer are the first gods mentioned in any ancient texts from Mesopotamia. The gods of Sumer were referred to by Sumerians as the ‘Anunnaki’, and comprised the original group of gods who came down from the heavens (the Elohim of the Bible), as well as those gods that were born on Earth (the ‘sons of God’ of the Bible). Certain tablets describe how the original Sumerian gods came to Earth from their home planet, Nibiru, which is an as yet undiscovered planet that is said to exist within our solar system. Unrealistic as this might sound to some readers, there’s nothing to show that it isn’t possible. It certainly makes it easier to accept that extraterrestrials could visit our planet if they came from within our own solar system than if they came from another star system light-years away.

The original group of Sumerian gods, the biblical Elohim, came to Earth and settled in Mesopotamia, where they established an organized civilization long before the human species came into existence. They created sanctuaries for themselves in that region, which is where the Garden of Eden is said to have been. Sitchin points out that a plethora of domesticated plants originated in that region at around 11,000 BC, before the first human civilization. This region seems to have been the originating point for a large number of our most common staple fruits, vegetables, and spices. Animal domestication began here soon after plants, and it was only later that these skills spread to other regions. This area certainly seems to have been a literal Garden of Eden at one time, and Sitchin points out that the order of creation that’s described in Genesis accurately reflects the gods’ development of the Sumerian civilization.

It should be pointed out that the domestication of plants is no simple matter. Nature requires thousands of generations to achieve even a modest degree of sophistication in many of the grains that originated in the Near East early on. Sitchin points out that spelt, a certain type of wheat, requires genetic mixing between two or more plants, and could not have been arrived at with a single plant species. The obvious question is: how could humans have domesticated these plants so early on and so quickly? The answer, in light of what the Sumerians themselves tell us, is that these plants were domesticated by the gods, either over a long period of time that began prior to the advent of human civilization, or through advanced genetic engineering.

Archeological digs show that by 7,500 BC, pottery was in use, and the quality of workmanship and design improved until about 5,000 BC before it began to decline again for no apparent reason. Sites of habitation also began to be abandoned at this time, also for no apparent reason. Then, as though some sudden impetus of ingenuity drove them, the peoples of this area began to show signs of marked improvement again, and formed the civilization of Sumer in southern Mesopotamia.

The first known written language originated in Sumer, a pictographic style that has been deciphered with the help of lexicon-dictionaries that were found from the later Akkadian civilization and which translated many of these Sumerian pictographs into the Akkadian language, which itself has been able to be deciphered by comparisons to still later forms of writing (helped greatly by the famous Rosetta stone). In this way, a great many of the Sumerian tablets have been able to be read, and a great deal about this early civilization has been learned. One thing in particular to note is that the Sumerian culture was at least as advanced as later cultures, if not more so, revealed by the fact that the later cultures borrowed Sumerian terminology in many of their sciences, including those of metallurgy and medicine.

The Sumerians were quite advanced in the field of medicine. They performed diagnoses before deciding on treatments, were able to perform fairly complicated surgical procedures, and used antiseptics. They developed a clothing and textile industry early on, and were concerned with dressing styles, having great variety and a sense of coordination in clothing, hairdos, and accessories. The variety of foods available gave the Sumerians the ability to develop their culinary arts and create a variety of recipes, including baked deserts. Early texts reveal that the Sumerians were already advanced in both their shipbuilding and seafaring abilities, voyaging the deep seas and traveling to distant lands in search of metals, rare woods, and precious stones.

The Sumerians were the first to use the wheel, to have schools, laws and codes, agriculture, medicine, a cosmology, music, and so many other things. According to at least one section of a deciphered tablet, the Sumerians were even able to measure time by the minute. It seems that Sumer was the origin of virtually all of the things that have been of the greatest advantage to human civilization and which have remained with us to this day.

The Sumerian texts claim that the gods bestowed the Sumerian rulers with knowledge, and instructed them to build temples for these gods, even providing them with blueprints. These temples would have required a labor force, which in turn required the ability to house them, to organize and feed them, and to train them in their tasks. This would have entailed at least a rudimentary knowledge of mathematics, in order to calculate the requirements of this labor force, and of course to measure the various lengths used in the temple structures. The Sumerian texts reveal that by 3,000 BC the Sumerians had developed a formal education system that taught writing, math, geography, botany, zoology, and theology.

History was also important to the Sumerians, who had a designated scribe to record significant events. In fact, the Sumerians seem to have had a scribe for everything, leaving behind a wide range of interesting insights into the daily life of these people, their customs, and their culture. They show every indication of having been a very well organized and fully developed society early on, and by their own admission, they acquired much of what they had from their gods.

An interesting fact about the Sumerians is that they adopted the sexagesimal system of counting, based on multiples of six, which was the first known mathematical system. It allowed for dividing as well as multiplying, and for calculating roots and raising by powers. From this mathematical system we have derived our 360 degrees for a circle, twelve inches in a foot, twenty-four hours in a day, twelve months in a year, etc. The Egyptians inherited the sexagesimal system for their religious affairs, and the number twelve was significant in many respects, including, of course, their main pantheon of gods.

In early Sumerian times, the gods were depicted in their writings as flesh and blood creatures, but later became mythologized by the Greeks and then the Romans. In Greek mythology they were the Olympians, a council of twelve gods who governed the lesser gods. The Hittites of the Bible, who were friends of the Israelites, are also known to have followed a pantheon of twelve gods, and all of these ancient cultures centered around a bull deity. Each of these cultures also had a serpent god, who in their legends was depicted as the adversary of their chief god. The Hittites referred to their gods by the same names as in Sumer, and were often written in Sumerian script, revealing a direct connection of their gods to the earlier civilization. The Hittites incorporated Sumerian pictographs in their own language, showing that this culture derived from Sumer just as the Akkadian culture did.

Even the Canaanites show signs that the origins of their gods stem from the earlier Sumerian civilization. Their supreme god was named El, meaning ‘lofty deity’. His title of Ab Adam meant ‘father of man’. Again, he is symbolized by the bull. El’s first son and heir to the throne was Baal, and was referred to as a storm god or the god of thunder and lightning. Baal was referred to in Canaanite texts as the ‘Master Craftsman’, and the ‘Prince of Earth’. Interestingly, a Master Craftsman is one of the degrees in Freemasonry.

In Egypt, the supreme god was named Ra, and he was associated with a celestial disc, represented in their art as a winged sphere. This symbol can be found throughout the earliest Mesopotamian civilizations, and, like virtually everything else, originated in Sumer. Even in Egypt, the first rulers were said to be gods, and the tales of their deeds also paralleled those of Sumer. Ra was the son of the god Ptah, who was more of a creator god, while Ra was a ruler god. The Egyptians say that their earliest gods arrived from the south, and erected dikes against the Nile floods to establish their civilization. Much of the Egyptian civilization borrowed from the Sumerians, sharing the same gods as the Canaanites.

From the Sumerian to the Canaanite civilization, and virtually all other civilizations in between, there is a stark similarity that reveals a continuation in the histories and legends of the same pantheon of gods. These various cultures all meticulously record the geneologies of these gods, and, as Sitchin shows, they all begin with the first gods of Sumer.

As I pointed out earlier, the Sumerian gods are described in the texts as two distinct groups, the first being the ‘olden’ gods, who were those that originally came to Earth from the heavens (the Elohim of the Bible), and the second, known to the Sumerians as the Anunnaki, being the descendants of the older god’s, they were the lesser deities who were born on Earth (the Nephilim of the Bible). The older gods were very powerful, and possessed certain abilities – apparently technological – that were incomprehensible to humans.

The Sumerians wrote that the gods had an abode in the heavens, and this is where their supreme god, Anu, resided. As in the Bible, the Sumerian texts tell of certain humans who were allowed to be taken to this off-planet abode. Although Anu rarely visited Earth, a temple was built for him, a sanctuary that the Sumerians called the ‘House for Descending from Heaven’. The remains of this great temple have been found where the ancient city of Uruk was located on the Euphrates. Tablets describing the minute details of such a visit by Anu attest to the fact that these gods were flesh and blood creatures with the same sort of emotions and desires that humans have, and not some sort of intangible forces that can operate outside the laws of nature, as the modern conception of God has come to imply. Anu was King of the Gods, and appointed duties to the gods on Earth, as well as kingship. The crown and scepter originate with Sumerian kingship, and have remained a symbolic tradition up to modern times. In support of this, the royal families of Europe, who all continue to retain such symbols, trace their lineage back to the first human rulers that were given kingship by the gods.

Anu’s son Enlil was the principle god on Earth, where he commanded over the other gods. Enlil erected the city of Nippur, the first space port, before humans had come on the scene. While Anu ruled over the gods, Enlil came to be in charge of rulership of humans, and appointed the first human kingships. According to Sitchin, Enlil was the god who eventually sought to destroy humankind in a deluge.

The next god in this pantheon was another son of Anu’s named Enki. He is said to have arrived on Earth when the landscape was much different than now, flooded and very marshy. He was a master engineer, and responsible for building canals and dikes to drain the marshlands. Enki was also the senior scientist and was later involved in the creation of the human race. It was also Enki who saved Noah from the Flood.

Sitchin tells us that the texts state that these older gods came from a planet within our solar system that the Sumerians called Nibiru. Described as a dark red planet, Nibiru is said to orbit our Sun on a highly elliptical path that brings it close to Earth every 3,600 years as it swings around the Sun before heading back out into space on its long orbit. The Christian symbol of the cross originally represented Nibiru, because it crosses our path – and the paths of all the other planets – as it cycles around the Sun. Perhaps not just coincidentally, the number 3,600 was written in Sumerian as a large circle, which undoubtedly signified Nibiru’s cycle.

The passing of Nibiru was extremely important to the gods, as well as to humans. One reason was because this was their home planet and it’s passing allowed them to travel back and forth during the temporary short distance between it and Earth. Another reason was because its passing can, at times, result in devastation to much or all of civilization on Earth. This has happened in the past at least once already, according to the many legends from different cultures around the world that tell of a Flood event that happened long ago. The passing of Nibiru was therefore an extremely crucial matter to these ancient gods, and, it being their home planet, they would have been vitally concerned with its dangerous trajectory through the solar system. These advanced beings, living on their home planet, would have long ago calculated this trajectory in relation to those of all the other planets, far into the future, in order to determine if and when their world might be at risk. They would have charted our solar system quite extensively, and would know a great deal about it. They would therefore know when the passing of Nibiru would cause devastation on Earth, and those gods who were here on Earth would be ever watchful of these particular times. We humans might be given forewarning of the time of its passing if it threatened to cause certain devastation, and this is what we are in fact being given by many different cultures through their ancient legends. This is why these legends and histories have been preserved so sacredly for so long.

Each of Nibiru’s passings marked one year for the gods, and this is reflected in the number of Earth years that each god was recorded to have reigned, spanning many thousands of Earth years, but actually only a small number of their own years. The Sumerian gods lived tremendously long lives relative to humans, and would certainly have seemed immortal to us.

According to the Sumerians, Before the Flood, ten gods reigned for a total of one hundred and twenty of their years, or 432,000 Earth years. The change in kingship would occur at the time of Nibiru’s passing, when the new king would arrive from Nibiru and the old king would return to their home planet. Over these various reigns, the gods are said to have brought about the human species and given us the gift of civilization. Sitchin points out that we can see evidence of this in the otherwise unexplainable periods of human advancement that have occurred about every 3,600 years, starting in 11,000 BC with the beginning of the Mesolithic period, followed by the pottery phase in 7,400 BC, followed by the sudden rise of human civilization in 3,800 BC.

Further evidence that the gods made the voyage between their planet and our own is contained in an ancient plaque that largely resembles the one that NASA sent along with the deep space probe Pioneer 10 as a message to any intelligent life forms that might discover it. This ancient plaque was found in the Royal Library at Ninevah, being a copy of a more ancient Sumerian tablet. The tablet is circular in shape, and divided into eight sections. It bears unusual geometric shapes and intersecting lines, precisely drawn, as well as an elliptical shape in one of the sections. The cuneiform writing on it appears to be technical in nature. The names of celestial bodies are written on it, suggesting that it’s some sort of astronomical chart. Sitchin suggests that it’s a pilot’s guide for traveling from Nibiru to Earth, and he shows how one of the better-preserved sections might be understood as a diagram of the route that would be taken through the solar system to reach Earth. From what can be discerned from the legible bits of writing on this strange circular tablet, it certainly seems to bear signs that it was somehow related to aerial navigation, with directional notes along key points in the route being mapped. Whatever the case may be, this tablet offers one more piece of evidence that supports the notion that these ancient gods were astronauts who came from a distant planet.

What would be the purpose of these gods to come to Earth and establish civilization here? It may be that their own planet was in imminent danger, the time of its demise having been calculated by the god’s advanced astronomical science, and they may have selected Earth as a future home or a temporary habitation, in case their planet was destroyed.

The gods were certainly concerned with preserving their genetics, as the ancient texts from our earliest civilizations all show. They were known to occasionally marry a half-sister in order to make their genes fifty percent purer, and the legal heir was whoever was the purer seed between half-brothers. Sitchin points out that this explains why the biblical personages of Abraham and Isaac married their sisters. Could it be that this obsession with genetic purity was due to a desire to preserve their race from certain obliteration?

At the time that these gods were said to have first arrived on Earth, at about 450,000 BC, our planet was going through an ice age. Only certain areas would have been relatively temperate and comfortable for living, and the region between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers would have been an ideal location, offering all the amenities necessary for colonization. The Nile and the Indus river systems were also ideal locations, and, not surprisingly, also became early centers of civilization. Aside from the availability of fresh water for drinking and irrigation, a source of fuel and energy would also be needed, and Mesopotamia was extremely rich in petroleum, where sources of bitumen, tar, pitch, and asphalt were easily available without the need for drilling. The region between the Euphrates and the Tigris was a perfect location to start a colony, where the irrigation of water, the cultivation of plants, and the grazing of animals would be most advantageous. The general flatness of the region would also allow them to land and take off in their space vehicles without the danger of natural obstacles. For splashdown landings, they had the Persian Gulf not very far to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. These nearby bodies of water also gave them the ability to travel about the Earth by ship in search of materials.

Although archeologists have found a great deal of evidence of primitive living in these areas and little signs that might be expected from a more advanced race, this doesn’t negate the possibility that a very advanced colony of other-worldly beings once came here and established a civilization, starting with the basic materials that were at hand, and only over time developing or otherwise obtaining better materials through the discovery of their sources. The gods would have brought with them much of what they needed for their comfort and survival, and they wouldn’t necessarily have started any major production or manufacturing that would have left us any perceptible signs of such, at least until after the Earth-born population of gods increased or the human race began to develop.

The first sites that these gods were said to have developed were the cities of Eridu, Larsa, and Nippur, in that order. Once Nippur was built, travel between Earth and the heavens was easier, and the expansion of their Earth colonies was stepped up. At Nippur was a tall pillar on a raised platform that seems to be described as a broadcasting tower, with which Enlil was able to send messages to the heavens. The pictographs for the syllables of Enlil's name even appear to symbolize such a communications antenna rising above a building or wall.

Enki had a sister named Ninhursag, who was in charge of the medical center. She eventually became associated with the Mother Goddess after having worked together with Enki in creating the first human.

The tales of the Sumerian gods speak of their divine powers as including a ‘Tablet of Destinies’ and ‘divine formulas’, which by all indications were to do with some sort of science or technology that may have even provided electrical power to Enlil’s sanctuary at Nippur. This Tablet of Destinies could apparently protect its bearer with a force field as well. Sitchin suggests that they may have had something to do with the orbits and flight paths of their spaceships, perhaps even containing computer programs. The divine formulas had something to do with the functioning of many aspects of their society. Ereshkibal, the first ruler of the Lower World, was provided with a ‘Tablet of Wisdom’, which Sitchin suggests may have been a databank used in the mining operations there. One god, Sin, used some sort of light beam – the ‘weapon of Anu’ – to crush his enemies. Sitchin mentions that from Nippur, Enlil could “raise the beams that search the heart of all the lands”, and had “eyes that could span all the lands”, which sounds like some sort of advanced surveillance technology. It’s interesting to note that an alternative spelling for Sumer is ‘Shumer, which translates to ‘one who watches’. Another god, Ninurta, could launch ‘bolts of light’ in battle. This god also possessed a “divine black wind bird”, which was housed in a temple enclosure and protected by two weapons, one emitting beams of light and the other a death ray. The gods also had something that’s referred to as the ‘terrible eye’, which “subdues the world to its power”, and the ‘world controller’, which could “reverberate all over”. Pictographs have also been found that depict some sort of aerial antennas protruding both from buildings as well as from smaller box-like objects. Sitchin suggests that these are communications technology, and points out that the box-like devices bear a similarity to the Ark of the Covenant, which was a devise that allowed Moses to receive remote communications from the god Yahweh.

The most obvious thing that the Sumerians possessed technology-wise was their flying craft, which they referred to as ‘mu’ or ‘shem’. They are mentioned innumerable times throughout the texts, and a number of pictographs reveal what appear to be depictions of rockets, space capsules, and winged aircraft. It is apparent from these texts and pictographs that the temples for the gods were erected as landing platforms for these flying craft. An ancient coin from this time frame reveals the image of the Great Temple of Ishtar, showing an inner courtyard with a raised platform inside it, atop of which stands a conical object that resembles a space capsule or rocket. Stelae were erected to pay homage to the gods, and these were representations of their airships. In the Sumerian language, the word for these stelae was translated as ‘stones that rise’. Not coincidentally, the words ‘stela’ and ‘stellar’ are both associated with the word ‘star’.

That these gods had flying craft is indisputable, and references to similar technology are made at least twice in the Bible. The first is where Jacob dreams of seeing a ladder that reaches up to heaven, with angels ascending and descending, and a god standing at the top of it speaking to him (Genesis 28:12). The second reference covers chapters one and ten of the Book of Ezekiel, which provide a very detailed description of what appears to be a modern-day UFO encounter.

Like most Hebrew words, the word ‘shem’ has several meanings, one of which translates to ‘name’, but which can also translate to ‘sky vehicle’. Thus, in Genesis 11:4, where it states, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth”, the original Hebrew text was mistranslated where it used the word shem, and instead of the people wanting to make a name for themselves, they were actually attempting to build a sky vehicle. Seen in this light, the story of the Tower of Babel takes on an entirely new meaning that makes a great deal more sense. Babel was the first city that Noah’s descendents built after the Flood. They had suffered a great loss and wanted to protect themselves from such a calamity in the future, so they sought to construct a shem that they could use to escape, or to relocate each other after being scattered abroad.

It may be that both definitions of the word ‘shem’ are to be applied, since the biblical texts are supposed to have layers of meaning, and the use of Hebrew words whose multiple definitions can all apply is often taken advantage of in esoteric writings. It may be that the people of Babel sought to establish for themselves a higher status closer to godhood, and to be seen and revered by others who would see them in their craft, just as the gods were revered when they were seen in their craft.

The heavens were apparently deemed off-limits to humans, as can still be evidenced when one considers the constant alien interference that seems to be going on with our modern-day space program (discussed in other parts of this book). In spite of this, however, a few humans have been given possession of flying craft from time to time, including King Solomon. In the Sumerian texts, we’re told that Enki provided his favored human, Adapa (apparently the biblical Adam), with a shem, so that he could visit Anu in his heavenly abode. We’re also given a description of a flight that a man named Etana took out into space, and how he observed the features of the Earth getting smaller and smaller until it disappeared altogether.

The gods built their ziggurat temples so that they served as both a residence for its god, and as a launch pad and storage area for that god’s flying craft. These temples would have to be built of immense stone blocks if they were to withstand the extreme forces of rocket blasts. The launch pad was atop the temple structure, with the god’s residence next to it. These temples were also observation towers, and their corners always pointed north, south, east, and west. Sitchin offers extensive evidence showing that the ancient gods carefully planned the locations of their cities in order to facilitate flying craft as they navigated their way to the main spaceport, which he believes was at Sippar.

The Sumerian texts mention a ‘Lower World’, which seems to be referring to a subterranean realm. The Lower World was ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal, but it appears that Enki became its ruler after his construction works had been completed. The Lower World was better known as the abzu, which meant ‘watery deep’, or, more literally, ‘primeval deep source’.

There is uncertainty as to whether the Lower World was a subterranean realm or whether it referred to the watery deep of the oceans, but whatever the case, it had to have been an environment that the gods could inhabit, and there’s little to show that they had the ability to live underwater.

The Lower World was entered through a series of seven gates, making it a heavily secured location. It had a light source and waters flowing through it. It was located to the west of Sumer, and was apparently reached by ship after several days journey. Interestingly, a journey of that length could have conceivably been taken from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea to somewhere beyond the Pillars of Hercules in the Atlantic Ocean, which is the region where Plato wrote that Atlantis was. Sitchin proposes that the abzu was in southeast Africa, although this is more to the south than to the east.

What could the Lower World be a source of? Sitchin suggests that it was the source of precious metals, and shows evidence that it was a place related to underground mining. Ancient texts state that metallurgy was a thriving industry even before humans arrived, when only the gods lived on Earth.
Archeologists have found signs of ancient mining in southern Africa. Carbon dating places this activity at between 2,000 BC and 7,690 BC. Further investigations uncovered a cavern that was blocked by a huge slab of rock. Charcoal remains within the cavern were dated to as far back as between 20,000 BC and 26,000 BC. Another charcoal sample unearthed in a shaft that was dug up nearby resulted in an even earlier date, between 40,000 BC and 43,000 BC. In Swaziland, artifacts in ancient mines have been dated to as early as 50,000 BC. Red ochre mines in South Africa date back to as far as 100,000 BC. Interestingly, this places these mining operations at the general time and location that humans were supposed to have begun to evolve from their ape-like ancestors. This reflects the reason why the gods created the human species: to have a labor force to work the mines for them. But why were the gods interested in mining?

The ancient gods, coming from the planet Nibiru, were obviously a very old civilization that had existed for millions of our Earth years, and in that time they may have greatly depleted the material resources of their own planet, and sought out new sources on other planets. We’ve already seen that astronomers have witnessed strange lights and other anomalies on the moon and Mars over the years, and these may very well have been from mining operations taking place on these celestial bodies. Metals such as gold, silver, and copper are important for electronics, and these were the most important metals to the gods, and the first to be mined. Since earliest times, precious metals and stones have always been highly regarded, and this may have originated with our earliest ancestor’s realization of the importance of these substances to the gods who lived on Earth at the time.

At first, the Anunnaki gods, the lesser deities (the Nephilim), were the ones who worked the mines, but they soon grew tired of the hard work. This may have been due to the arrival of Enki to the Lower World, who, being an engineer, may have set out to upscale the mining operations, demanding increased labor in the uncomfortably cramped spaces underground.

There is an ancient Sumerian legend that was preserved by the later Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations, which told of a time “when the gods, like men, bore the work and suffered the toil”, and eventually revolted. A council was convened between the ruling gods in order to deal with the matter, at which Enki offered a solution. That solution was to put the skills of the medical scientist Ninhursag to work in creating a primitive worker-being to do the labor for them. The idea was accepted, so Ninhursag went to work with the help of Enki. In the end they were successful, having created the first of these creatures, a type of creature that they called ‘Man’. According to the Sumerian texts, this occurred after 144,000 years of the gods toiling in the mines, so if they had arrived at around 450,000 BC, then the creation of humans would have occurred at around 300,000 BC. This is about the time when Neanderthal man is believed to have arrived on the scene, based on what the archeological record reveals. Neanderthal man would have been a proto-human, the first successful attempt at creating a worker for the gods.

In the ‘Epic of Gilgamesh’, we are told that before the creation of the human species, the earthly animal that was used to create it had shaggy hair covering its entire body, ate grass with the gazelles, and jostled with the wild beasts for a place at the watering holes. This earthly creature, Sitchin suggests, was Homo Erectus, Neanderthal man’s predecessor.

As the Bible states, the gods made man in their image and likeness, which means that he was created with the same physical and emotional attributes. However, he was without much intelligence, until later when he ‘ate from the Tree of Knowledge’. The Sumerian texts tell how the first worker-beings didn’t know how to cook or clothe themselves, eating raw plants and drinking from ditches. This reveals that there were two stages in the god’s creation of the human species, and we can see a parallel to this in the archeological record with the sudden appearance of Neanderthal man, and then, not long after, the more refined Cro-Magnon man.

The contradiction between evolutionary theory and the Christian belief in man’s ‘divine creation’ is settled in the Sumerian story of our creation. Through genetic manipulation, the human species was created by the gods by crossing their own genes with the genes of an earthly creature. Sitchin suggests that the chosen earthly species was genetically compatible with the gods because this earthly species was their own genetic ancestor, having evolved on Earth after this planet had been seeded with life when Nibiru had a planetary collision with another planet in our solar system, in a time long before their own arrival. Therefore, the newly created human was a creature that was still genetically compatible and still naturally governed by evolutionary processes, but had simply been given a ‘boost’ through the genetics of the gods.

We know that the gods were capable of hybridization, because they had developed all the domesticated plants and animals that have been around since the dawn of civilization. How could we have ever guessed that genetic manipulation, cloning, and artificial insemination were even possible until we ourselves reached that point in our science where we’re capable of doing these things ourselves? The same might be asked regarding flying craft and space exploration. It’s just a matter of time before we come to realize the literal truth of much of the ancient legends from the Bible and elsewhere, which up until the last fifty years or so have seemed beyond reality. But now that we know that such things are possible, we need to consider the ancient texts in a new light.

The Sumerian texts describe how Enki and Ninhursag had a number of preliminary failures in creating their worker-being, creating deformed or diseased creatures. Finally, however, they had success, and created the first proto-human, a creature described as having “a skin as the skin of a god” – a creature without body hair.

The gods had used surrogate mothers of their own species in the process of creating the first proto-human by artificially inseminating them, and the texts describe them waiting ten months before performing a caesarian birth. The very first proto-human was birthed by Enki’s spouse Ninti, and when it was seen that they were successful, they began to inseminate other surrogate mothers, creating a series of clones.

The Sumerian texts state that the first proto-humans were created in the Lower World, initially intended to work the mines, but we see in Genesis 2:8 that it says, “And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed”. If the Garden of Eden was in the land of Sumer, as every indication shows that it was, then the Lower World, which the Sumerian texts state was west of Sumer, was where the gods brought Adam from. Whatever the case, the proto-humans were eventually taken to work in the land of Sumer as well, and came to populate that area, living amongst the gods.

In the older Akkadian version of the story of Noah and the Flood, known as ‘The Epic of Gilgamesh’, the hero, Utnapishtim (Noah), tells Gilgamesh his tale of surviving the Flood. This earlier version offers more details than the biblical version, and some of them are rather interesting. In it, Utnapishtim relates that the gods had secretly voted to destroy mankind, but it was Enki who gave Utnapishtim warning, and instructed him to build an ark. This older version also tells us that Enki told Utnapishtim to wait for a trembling and an outpouring of eruptions caused by the god Shamash, the god of fiery rockets. This seems to imply that the gods left the Earth in rocket ships at the last moment. It’s told in this version that Utnapishtim had with him a navigator, and that he was instructed to head for Mt. Ararat. After the storm and rains had finally subsided, and the waters had receded, and Utnapishtim was back on land at Mt. Ararat, he built an altar to Enki and offered a sacrifice. In this version, we’re told that the smell of the cooking meat attracted the gods “like flies”. This is an interesting description, because it seems to imply that the gods were starving with hunger, and that they had been situated somewhere nearby. If they were starving and nearby, then they obviously hadn’t all returned to Nibiru. The Great Goddess praises Utnapishtim and vows never to forget that day. This certainly sounds like Utnapishtim had saved their lives. When Enlil arrives soon after, however, he’s upset that some humans had survived the Flood. But Enki pleads for Utnapishtim, and points out to Enlil how exceedingly wise this man was to have seen the signs of the coming disaster, and asks Enlil to give the matter careful consideration. In the end, Enlil says that Utnapishtim and his wife “shall be unto us like gods” and reside in the ‘Far Away’, where they were taken and given eternal life. The remainder of the human race was allowed to continue on Earth again, carrying on the superior genetic traits of Utnapishtim. In fact, they were needed by the gods at this point, as Enki seems to have indicated to Enlil, otherwise the gods would have been forced once more to labor for themselves to rebuild their civilization.

As evidence of the Flood event occurring at about 11,000 BC, archeologists have discovered that the first signs of agriculture in the Near East are higher up in the mountains, rather than in the lower plains and valleys as would normally be expected. The obvious explanation for this is that the lower lands were still flooded marshlands. In support of this, the digs at the site of the ancient city of Ur have revealed a layer of mud over the remains of this city that’s eleven feet thick.

It’s very possible that a close passing of Nibiru caused the Flood, since the gods were fully aware of its coming, and when. In preparing to leave, they had made the decision to leave behind the human race that they had created, rather than take even a portion of it off-planet with them during the catastrophic event. They escaped into Earth orbit just prior to the onslaught of the storms, and the sound and flash of their rockets signaled to Utnapishtim that it was time to seal himself in the ark. The animals and food that he was instructed to take with him were quite possibly those that had been domesticated by the gods, which would greatly help Utnapishtim (and the gods) to start anew. We can see in Genesis 7:2 that ‘clean’ beasts were to be taken on the ark “by sevens”, while ‘unclean’ beasts “by two”. This seems to indicate that the domesticated animals were of higher priority.

The Epic of Gilgamesh tells us that the rising waters were preceded by hurricane winds that came from the south, and built up until the waters engulfed the mountains. Sitchin suggests that the Flood event was the result of the miles-thick Antarctic ice sheet breaking off, causing a monster tsunami that traveled northwards across the Indian Ocean and up the Persian Gulf, pushing a giant wall of water hundreds of miles inland and wiping out the Sumerian civilization. Sitchin points out that the breaking off of the ice sheet could have resulted in the end of the last ice age. A large enough celestial body passing close enough to Earth, whether it’s a rogue planet or anything else, could have enough gravitational effect to cause the ice sheet to collapse.

That the gods had no food of their own to eat by the time the waters had receded reveals that for some reason they hadn’t stocked enough food for themselves, or something unexpected had happened to put them in such a predicament. Could they have been unable to return to Nibiru for some reason, and become trapped on Earth, having to await its next passing 3,600 years later?

Interestingly, Sitchin informs us that Berossus, a Babylonian historian, wrote in his version of the Flood story that before the impending disaster struck, Sisithros (Noah) was ordered to gather up every piece of available writing and store it at Sippar, which he did. This tells us that the knowledge that had been acquired by mankind was in fact preserved.

After the Flood, when civilization was renewed on Earth and humans were given the ability to fend more easily for themselves through knowledge bequeathed by the gods, the gods themselves prepared to retreat, but before they did they appointed intermediaries between themselves and the human race, these being the first kings among men. These kings were responsible for teaching the customs and laws to the people and seeing that they served the god’s wishes.

Ancient records reveal that humans spread to different regions after the Flood, dividing into three separate branches. Each branch was led by one of Noah’s three sons: Shem in Mesopotamia and the Near East, Ham in Africa and parts of Arabia, and Japheth in Europe, India, Iran, and Asia Minor. This resulted in new civilizations arising in the three regions that had been considered by the gods for their colony on Earth.

The gods became overlords, each presiding over a different region and its people, and responsible for governing it through the appointed human kingships. Thus, kings went to war and conquered new lands in the name of their gods. The gods were in charge of affairs between these different kingships, since this required the cooperation of the gods of those other regions, whom only the gods could approach. Human worship of any god other than their own was not allowed, since it could invite problems, so it was dealt with harshly. At the same time, the gods rivaled amongst each other, and were constantly attempting to win over new human subjects, or to eliminate the followers of rival gods. This was the reason for wars and the conquest of new lands, which have continued throughout history right up into modern times.

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